Workshop - Northern Lights on Food II, June 9-11 2021

on Zoom (Online)

on Zoom



Today we are much more conscious of what we eat. We not only want our food to be safe, tasty and make us healthy, but also that it is produced in a sustainable way without excessive processing and unnecessary additives. Many also want more plant protein and tasty, varied vegetarian food from locally grown producers. We may not fully realize what a complex and intriguing material we are putting in our mouth when we eat. The complexity of food not only provides the good feeling when we eat, but also provides the nutrition and health that we need.

Sweden has made very large investments in complex and exciting research tools in Lund, namely ESS and MAX IV. With the new tools at hand we are developing systematic understanding of food structure in connection to processing as well as digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients. In the future we will therefore be able to design healthy, sustainable and tasty food; taking its foundations from the food structure knowledge! 

The challenges are large, but stimulating, and the food industry and academia are ready to meet them jointly. This was clearly demonstrated in March 2019 through the high and active participation in the first "Northern Lights on Food" (NLF) workshop in Lund. At this first NLF workshop, industry and academia started to discuss how food research and development can be strengthened through the technologies available in conjunction with MAX IV and ESS. The workshop attracted over 100 Nordic food scientists, including industry representatives, scientists and product developers from both national and international food companies.

Now we are moving forward and are proud to announce the second Northern Lights on Food Conference, June 9-11 2021, this time organised with financial support from Formas. We will bring together the key actors in the food sector, including academic researchers, institutes and the food industry, with experts in X-ray and neutron-based techniques. The aim is to establish and organise a Northern Light on Food (NLF) network that will provide food researchers with the opportunity to take full advantage of the new research tools provided by Large Scale Research Infrastructure (LSRI), ESS and MAX IV, emerging in Lund.

When: June 9, 12.00 - June 11, 13.00
Where: Zoom
Deadline: Registration deadline is June 7
Cost: No fee since the event is fully digital

Panel discussion

Moderator: Pia Kinhult, ESS, Sweden
Panelists: Elisabet Nielsen (Vinnova), Johanna van Schaik Dernfalk (Formas), Carina Knorpp (Näringsdepartementet), Rickard Öste (Aventure/Oatly), Tommy Nylander (LU-LINXS)

Talking Points:
1. The high global consumption of animal-based foods needs to be reduced and replaced by plant-based alternatives to reach the sustainability goals of society. This is challenging in numerous ways; from a lack of understanding of food structure, to missing protein sources appropriate for a Scandinavian climate. At the same time the degree of self-sufficiency in Sweden has declined and in Sweden there is a consumer demands on the use of locally produces for food production. How do we meet these challenges? 

2. Tackling  the societal challenges, such as supply , sustainable production, health and well-being connected to food production requires addressing gap in scientific knowledge and adopting multidisciplinary approaches as well as knowledge transfer between research institution and industry. How do we achieve this? How do we unleash the full potential of existing research potential and entrepreneurship in industry? Can the food sector be as successful and important as the IT sector? What does it take?

3. The establishment of ESS and MAX IV in Lund an entirely new toolbox for food science via the new in situ x-ray and neutron techniques, to obtain unsurpassed knowledge on the structuring of plant-based food matrices as well as traditional food from farm to fork and beyond. We can for the first time study processing in situ, which offer new opportunities for sustainable processing with efficient use of the raw material and minimal energy consumption at the same time as we  obtain healthy, safe and tasty food. How do we exploit this unique opportunity? Challenges are the lack of resources and lack of knowledge in the industry, in particular in small companies. How do we meet these challenges? The ESS and MAXIV is being built up now and there is an unique opportunity to  engage in instruments and sample environment? How can food industry and food researchers engage with facilities to make them even better to study challenges in food research and development? 

4. Should we establish European Food Laboratory (EuFL) for food science research and related applications in Science Village Scandinavia next to MAX IV and ESS as a physical and virtual arena where food scientists in academia and industry meet, collaborate, and integrate advanced X-ray and neutron techniques into their skillset? How do we concretely get started? Could we use the model of ESS based on agreements between different countries? Or could we organise it as EMBL European Molecular Biology Laboratory as a membership organisation? How do we ensure inclusion and complementarity? How do we engage industry?

Student speed dating

Do you want to meet your peers, and see how they have used these techniques in their research, or how to get some inspiration for your work?  If you are a young investigator, and want to network, please join this speed dating session.  A one-hour meeting with short, breakout sessions to get to know each other, and connect with future colleagues!

Confirmed speakers

Benjamin Boyd - Monash University, Australia
Marta Martínez Sanz - CIAL-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Krassimir Velikov - Unilever, the Netherlands
Behnaz Pirzamanbein - Lund University, Sweden & QiM DTU, Denmark
Alejandro Marangoni - University of Guelph, Canada
Shuai Bai - Lund University, Sweden
Thea Lykkegaard Møller - Aarhus University, Denmark
William Twengström - Exciscope AB, Sweden
Peter Fischer - ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Emanuel Larsson - Lund University, Sweden
Gregor Rudolph - Lund University, Sweden
Laurence RamosCNRS-University Montpellier, France
Francisco Vilaplana - KTH, Sweden
Sisse Marquina-Jonberg - Novo Nordisk Foundation, Denmark
Maria Öhman - Vinnova, Sweden
Christian Malmberg - Lantmännen, Sweden
Hans Tromp - NIZO, The Netherlands
Peter L Wejse Arla, Denmark
Milena Corredig - Aarhus University, Denmark
Ramune Kuktaite - SLU Alnarp, Sweden
Wim BouwmanDelft University of Technology, the Netherlands

Organizing committee

Anna StrömChalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Niklas LorénRISE, Sweden
Milena CorredigiFood Centre for Innovative Food Research, Aarhus University, Denmark
Maud Langton Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Lars Nilsson Lund University, Sweden
Elisabet RytterLivsmedelsföretagen/Sweden Food Arena
Stephen HallLund Institute of Advanced Neutron and X-ray Science (LINXS), Sweden
Åsa Grunning - Lund Institute of Advanced Neutron and X-ray Science (LINXS), Sweden
Tommy Nylander – Lund University, Sweden
Selma MaricMAX IV Laboratory

Northern Lights on Food website.

During our events we sometimes take photographs and short film clips to profile our activities. Please let us know if you don’t want to be in any photos/films before we start the event. Some talks might be recorded to be used for educational purposes in the LINXS website.

By registering to our events you give your permission to LINXS, according to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), to register your name and e-mail address to be used for the sole purpose of distributing newsletters and communications on LINXS activities.

For practical questions, please contact:
    • 13:00 13:10
      Welcome by the vice chancellor of Lund University Prof Erik Renström 10m
    • 13:10 15:10
      Session 1 - Session chair: Tommy Nylander (Lund University) & Selma Maric (MAX IV)
      • 13:10
        Keynote talk - Aurora Australis to Northern Lights - shining light on milk and infant formula during digestion 40m
        Speaker: Prof. Benjamin Boyd (Monash University)
      • 13:50
        Keynote talk - The potential of small angle scattering to study the structure of polysaccharide-based gels 30m

        Polysaccharides are of great interest within the food industry, not only because they are the major component in foods such as fruits and vegetables, but also because they play a crucial role as food additives to provide different functionalities (e.g. thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, etc.). In particular, seaweed polysaccharides such as agar, carrageenan and alginate, are widely used as gelling and thickening agents. These polysaccharides are water-soluble and under certain conditions can form highly hydrated gel structures known as hydrogels. Despite their great interest in the food industry, the native structure of these polysaccharide hydrogels and their gelation mechanisms are still not fully understood. Scattering techniques offer a great advantage over other characterization methods since they require minimal sample preparation, avoiding the severe structural alterations induced by drying processes, and allow the carrying out of temperature-resolved experiments to investigate the structural changes taking place during gelation and melting processes.

        In this talk, relevant results on the structure of seaweed polysaccharide-based hydrogels aimed for different food-related applications will be presented, showing the potential of combining small angle scattering techniques (SAXS and SANS) with complementary methods such as rheology, spectroscopy and microscopy. For instance, through SANS contrast variation and temperature-resolved SAXS experiments, the step-wise mechanism driving the gelation process in different agar-based extracts was elucidated, determining the effect of their composition (i.e. the presence of other components such as proteins and minerals) and molecular structure (i.e. molecular weight, agarose content and sulphate content), as well as the implications on their rheological and mechanical properties. Another example is related to the study of the structure of -, ɩ- and λ-carragenaan hydrogels and the relationship with their texture and rheological behavior. By selecting the suitable type of carragenaan and adjusting the salt content, it was possible to produce hydrogels with very different textures, i.e. from spreadable pastes to strong gels. Agar and carrageenans were also used as gelling matrices for the development of emulsion-filled gels with potential as fat substitutes in food. The use of small angle scattering techniques was essential to unravel the structural role of polysaccharides in these novel structures and understand their rheological behavior.

        These results demonstrate the potential of small angle scattering techniques, especially when combined with complementary methods, to provide valuable insights on the structure of polysaccharide-based hydrogels, enabling the rational design of new food additives with interesting functionalities for a wide range of applications.

        Speaker: Dr. Marta Martínez Sanz (CIAL-CSIC, Madrid, Spain)
      • 14:20
        Keynote talk - Plant Forward: How unlocking Nature’s toolbox is fuelling our innovations 30m
        Speaker: Prof. Krassimir Velikov (Unilever, The Netherlands )
      • 14:50
        Contr. talk - Study on Bending of Laminar Packaging Material from Tetra Pak 20m
        Speaker: Behnaz Pirzamanbein (Technical University of Denmark (DTU) & Lund University)
    • 15:10 15:20
      Coffee Break and Virtual Mingle 10m
    • 15:20 17:00
      Session 2 - Session chair: Jacob J.K Kirkensgaard (KU)
      • 15:20
        Keynote talk - Structuring Oils via Enzymatic Glycerolysis 40m

        Current trans fat replacement strategies provide food products with acceptable textural and sensory properties on a large scale, and at a reasonable price, but carry health and environmental burdens. Palm oil is used extensively because of its high solidity and functionality, however, increased production has led to deforestation throughout the world’s tropical regions. To reduce dependence on palm oil it is necessary to find a means of structuring a variety of readily available vegetable oils. Using cottonseed and peanut oils, and another 8 oils, we show that enzymatic glycerolysis can structure liquid oils into solids fats through monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol production from their native triacylglycerols without the addition of saturated or hydrogenated fat, thus not altering fatty acid composition. Solid fat contents of cottonseed and peanut oils, for example, were increased from 8% to 29% and 9% to 30% at 5°C, respectively, and 21% and 10% at 20°C, respectively. Additionally, oil-binding capacity was enhanced significantly. These novel oils were used to produce margarine and peanut butter with similar textural properties to commercial products but, importantly, represent a healthy and sustainable means to replace hydrogenated or saturated fats.

        Speaker: Prof. Alejandro Marangoni (University of Guelph, Canada)
      • 16:00
        Contr. talk - Comparative X-ray microtomography and SEM to investigate the encapsulating matrix of freeze-dried probiotics 20m

        The health effects of probiotics are exerted by live and viable microorganisms delivered to their site of action in the intestine. Thus, formulating a probiotic product that ensures viable cells with long shelf life is one of the main challenges for the industry. A common way to enhance the shelf life is to freeze dry the probiotics with lyo-protectants, and a large research effort is directed towards finding the best lyo-protectant formulation and drying process. Unfortunately, there is almost no focus on how the structure of the freeze dried material can influence the shelf life. Traditional pharmaceutical formulations often demand elegant porous freeze dried cake without collapse. This kind
        of freeze dried materials often have thin walls and result in a poor encapsulation of the cells, which may be detrimental for the stability. The study to be presented aims at understanding how the formulation and drying process together influence the three-dimensional structure of the freeze-dried material and the cell encapsulation. X-ray micro tomography (μCT) is an excellent tool to study freeze-dried material, including the impact of various freeze-drying protocols, by generating a three-dimensional image, which can be used for further investigating quantitative 3D-parameters, e.g. the pore size, pore connectivity, wall thickness and tortuosity at a sub-micrometer resolution.
        Here, μCT is combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and analysis of the specific surface area to give a broader understanding of the structure development and how this is reflected in mass transfer resistance during drying and encapsulation of the bacterial cells.

        Speaker: Shuai Bai (Lunds universitet)
      • 16:20
        Contr. talk - Dephosphorylation of the casein micelle 20m

        Dephosphorylation of caseins has been evaluated on their monomeric forms, and dephosphorylation extents up to nearly 100% have been reported. However, the effect of dephosphorylation on casein micelles has yet to be fully understood. The aim of this work is to study the dephosphorylation of the native casein micelle under native
        and dissociating conditions to determine the kinetics of micellar dephosphorylation and to study the micellar structure as a function of its phosphorylation degree. We hypothesize that the structure of the casein micelle is the limiting factor when enzymatically dephosphorylating it. To test the hypothesis, dephosphorylation, by Calf Intestinal Phosphatase and Potato Acid Phosphatase, is conducted under varying conditions, and the degree of dephosphorylation compared. The structural changes affecting the micelle are then evaluated by determining differences in micellar protein composition, particle size by light scattering, and structural analysis using SAXS, to study possible changes to the outer and inner structure of the casein micelle before and after dephosphorylation treatment. This work allows to further elucidate the organization of the casein micelle, by determining the accessibility of the enzyme within the supramolecular structure, and under which conditions we see specific changes in the pattern of dephosphorylation.

        Speaker: Mrs. Thea Lykkegaard Møller (Department of Food Science, Aarhus University)
      • 16:40
        Contr. talk - Towards tabletop 4D imaging of low-density food products using x-ray phase contrast 20m

        Detailed imaging of the food we eat widens our understanding of its structure and helps us to optimise ingredients and production techniques. Recent and established imaging techniques within
        the food science field are e.g. light and electron microscopy methods, as well as X-Ray Computed Tomography (XCT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Neutron Tomography (NT) [1]. In contrast to microscopy techniques, which often require advanced and time-consuming sample preparations, tomographic imaging techniques, such as XCT, MRI and NT often have no such requirements. XCT has already been used for decades to non-destructively investigate, e.g., muffins,
        marshmallows and meat, but with limited contrast in samples with small density variations due to weak x-ray attenuation [2,3]. On the other hand, detecting not only attenuation, but also phase shift, enables high-resolution imaging of low-density materials, such as protein, carbohydrates and fat. If image acquisition is fast enough, time-resolved volume data sets can be acquired. Synchrotron radiation 4D x-ray microtomography in combination with phase contrast has already been demonstrated on both bread during baking [4] and microstructural stability in ice-cream [5], and great technical developments in 4D imaging have been shown in recent years [6]. Synchrotron beamlines are able to produce state-of-the art images, where two access routes currently exist: 1) peer-review accessibility, if the aim is to publish the results and 2) paid industry beamtime, without the requirement of publishing. However, both access routes often involve a waiting time up to 3-6 months. If on the other hand time-resolved micro-CT of food products were to be performed in a local laboratory, waiting time and cost can be reduced. In this study, we used lab-based phase-contrast CT to demonstrate imaging of different low-density food products, such as bread, potato chips, tomatoes and cheese doodles. Our propagation-based phase-contrast system is based on a liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source
        (MetalJet D2, Excillum, Sweden) [7] and enables high-resolution tomography of centimetre-sized samples in a few minutes. For example, it can be used to differentiate between fat, carbohydrates and air in cheese doodles (Fig. 1a), as well as visualisation of fine internal structures and air cavities in potato chips and bread. Results obtained with phase-contrast micro-CT were compared to confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of similar samples (Fig 1b), acquired with a Leica system (TCS SP5 AOBS, Heidelberg, Germany). Fat is found inside some of the pores in the cheese doodle, predominately close to the surface. The different components in the structure,
        the corn matrix, fat and air blisters, correspond well between CLSM and X-ray phase-contrast CT images. By further optimisations, the total micro-CT acquisition time can be reduced to 10-30 seconds per scan, which opens up for time-resolved studies of, for example, extrusion or melting processes.
        These developments lead the way towards performing 4D analysis of food products closer to the production line, thus further refining the processes of making tasty, healthier and more cost-efficient food products.

        Speaker: William Twengström (Exciscope AB)
    • 17:00 17:10
      Short Break 10m
    • 17:10 18:00
      Student speed dating - Session chair Milena Corredig & Thea Lykkegaard Møller (Aarhus University) 50m
    • 09:00 10:20
      Session 3 - Session chair: Milena Corredig (Aarhus University)
      • 09:00
        Keynote talk - Structure and rheology of stimuli responsive nanocellulose interfacial layers 40m

        The use of particles such as nanocelluloses, i.e. cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and nanofibrils (CNF) received increasing attention for the Pickering stabilization of fluid interfaces [1]. The adsorption of nanocellulose and nanocellulose-protein composites at oil-water or air-water interfaces facilitates the formation of stable and biocompatible emulsions and foams but depends heavily on the particles’ surface properties. In this contribution, we review the structure of differently designed adsorption layers by neutron reflectivity and interfacial rheology measurements as a function of physico-chemical boundaries conditions (pH, salts, enzymes) [2, 3], surface properties of the cellulose crystals (natural, methylation, esterification) [4, 5], and protein or polysaccharide addition [6]. Native unmodified CNC (hydrophilic, negatively charged, and anisotropic nanoparticles) showed negligible viscoelasticity that could be increased by charge screening due to a shift from repulsive to attractive CNC interactions. Methylated CNCs formed dense monolayers with higher dynamic moduli compared to native CNCs and could be thermo-gelled into multilayers. The esterified CNCs formed aggregated clusters at the interface, resulting in a Maxwellian frequency behavior with distinctive relaxation times, a rarely observed phenomenon for interfacial layers. Scattering length density profiles obtained from neutron reflectivity measurements are used to elucidate the thickness and roughness of the adsorption layer, and in case of nanocellulose-protein composites, their spatial composition. Supported by in vivo digestion experiments in humans we rationalize the design principles of nanocellulose-stabilized emulsions and foams for food and drug delivery vehicles [7].

        [1] Bertsch P, Fischer P: Adsorption and interfacial structure of nanocelluloses at fluid interfaces, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 276 (2020) 102089
        [2] Bertsch P, Fischer P: Interfacial rheology of charged anisotropic cellulose nanocrystals at the air-water interface, Langmuir 35 (2019) 7937.
        [3] Scheuble N, Geue T, Windhab EJ, Fischer P: Tailored interfacial rheology for gastric stable adsorption layers, Biomacromolecules 15 (2014) 3139.
        [4] Bertsch P, Diener M, Adamcik J, Scheuble N, Geue T, Mezzenga R, Fischer P: Adsorption and interfacial layer structure of unmodified nanocrystalline cellulose at air/water interfaces, Langmuir 34 (2018) 15195.
        [5] van den Berg MEH, Kuster S, Windhab EJ, Adamcik J, Mezzenga, R, Geue T, Sagis LMC, Fischer P: Modifying the contact angle of anisotropic cellulose nanocrystals: Effect on interfacial rheology and structure, Langmuir 34 (2018) 10932.
        [6] Scheuble N, Lussi M, Geue T, Carriere F, Fischer P: Blocking gastric lipase adsorption and displacement processes with viscoelastic biopolymer adsorption Layers, Biomacromolecules 17 (2016) 3328.
        [7] Scheuble N, Schaffner J, Schumacher M, Windhab EJ, Liu D, Parker H, Steingoetter A, Fischer P: Tailoring emulsions for controlled lipid release: Establishing in vitro-in vivo correlation for digestion of lipids, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10 (2018) 17571.

        Speaker: Prof. Peter Fischer (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
      • 09:40
        Contr. talk - Towards Correlative X-Ray Tomographic Imaging Of Membranes For Improving Food Processing 20m

        In recent years the need for shifting our food system towards more plant-based proteins has become more and more apparent. The key reason for this shift is the economic and sustainable recovery of plant proteins from valuable, yet underutilized agricultural waste streams for use in food
        applications. For highly selective energy and resource-efficient separation processes, membrane filtration can play an important role in realizing this shift.
        The first successful membrane technology in the food industry was the recovery of proteins from whey, which was until the 1970’s a major disposal challenge for the dairy industry. Using ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, it was suddenly possible to concentrate and desalt whey proteins. Based on this success story, membrane processes established themselves for the concentration and purification of many products in the food industry. However, clogging of the membrane during the filtration process, so-called membrane fouling, is still a major challenge.
        Membrane fouling alters the separation performance during operation. It may be caused by the deposition of suspended and dissolved substances on the membrane surface, thereby forming a cake or gel layer, thus blocking the pore openings, or causing adsorption on the surface and on the pore walls. Membrane fouling can only be overcome by regular chemical cleaning, which in turn leads to plant down time, membrane aging, consumption of high-quality drinking water and the generation of huge amounts of waste water.
        Thus, a comprehensive understanding on membrane fouling on a fundamental level is needed. One approach to generate in depth knowledge, is to examine changes due to fouling and cleaning of the inner structure of the membranes on a micrometer to nanometer scale using correlative X-ray tomographic imaging techniques, including microtomography, full-field nanotomography, holographic nanotomography and ptycho-tomography. This presentation will give an overview
        of the possibilities of X-ray tomographic imaging methods for membrane technology to improve the operation of membrane processes in the food industry More specifically an example of UF for the separation of rapeseed proteins from the press cake of the rapeseed oil production will be presented, including the need for sample preparation by Focused Ion Beam (FIB).

        Speakers: Dr. Emanuel Larsson (Division of Solid Mechanics & LUNARC, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University), Mr. Gregor Rudolph (Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University)
      • 10:00
        Contr. talk - Understanding gelation of gluten proteins thanks to neutron and X-ray scattering 20m

        The origin of the unique rheological properties of wheat gluten, the water-insoluble protein fraction of wheat grain, is crucial in bread-making processes and questions scientists since the 18th
        century. Gluten is a complex mixture of two families of proteins, monomeric gliadins (Gli) and polymeric glutenins (Glu). To better understand the respective role of the different classes of proteins in the supramolecular structure of gluten and its link to the material properties, we have developed model gluten systems comprising controlled amounts of Gli and Glu in food-grade binary solvents [1]. Using contrast variation techniques and small-angle neutron scattering, we have evidenced in
        gluten gels the presence of distinct regions of typical size several tens of nm, which arise from the preferential interaction of Glu polymers through a tight network of non-exchangeable intermolecular hydrogen bonds, at the origin of the gelation of gluten [3]. In addition, we have used time-resolved synchrotron ultra-small X-ray scattering to quantitatively probe the dynamics of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in gluten protein suspensions following a temperature quench [4]. Fluid viscoelastic samples depleted in polymer Glu phase separate
        following a spinodal decomposition process, with a coarsening resulting from a competition between thermodynamics and transport. Anomalous phase-separation dynamics is by contrast measured for gluten gels rich in Glu, due to elastic constraints, illustrating the role of viscoelasticity in the dynamics of LLPS in protein dispersions. Additional experiments conducted by changing the solvent, from pure water (a bad solvent for gluten proteins) to ethanol/water (60/40 v/v) (a good solvent for gluten proteins) confirm the subtle interplay between phase-separation and viscoelasticity in gluten proteins gels [5].
        [1] Dahesh et al. Polymeric assembly of gluten proteins in an aqueous ethanol solvent. J Phys Chem B 118, 11065 (2014).
        [2] Banc et al. Small angle neutron scattering contrast variation reveals heterogeneities of interactions in protein gels. Soft Matter 12, 5340 (2016).
        [3] Dahesh et al. Spontaneous gelation of wheat gluten proteins in a food grade solvent. Food Hydrocolloids, 52, 1 (2016).
        [4] Banc et al. Phase separation dynamics of gluten protein mixtures. Soft Matter 15, 6160 (2019).
        [5] Costanzo et al. Tailoring the viscoelasticity of polymer gels of gluten proteins through solvent quality. Submitted (2020)

        Speaker: Dr. Laurence Ramos
    • 10:20 10:40
      Coffee Break 20m
    • 10:40 12:15
      Session 4 - National Funding for Pilot Projects - Session chairs: Lars Nilsson (Lund University) and Maud Langton (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
      • 10:40
        Francisco Vilaplana - KTH - Hemicelluloses: Molecular structure, assembly in plant cell walls and food applications 20m

        Plant cell walls constitute the main renewable resource for the development of bio-based energy and materials, and they are a fundamental source of dietary fibre in our diets (e.g. in
        cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables). The heterogeneity and recalcitrance of plant cell walls is fundamental to the biological function, but these pose large challenges for their exploitation
        in material and nutritional applications. Plant cell walls constitute a fascinating biological material with controlled hierarchical organization from the molecular to the macroscopic level,
        consisting mainly of polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins), proteins and polyphenolic compounds. Hemicelluloses act as a link between the cellulose, protein and
        phenolic components in cell walls and regulate the aggregation of cellulose microfibrils. Hemicelluloses are a family of complex biopolymers with a b-(1®4) backbone of neutral sugars
        (glucose, xylose and mannose), but decorated with an array of neutral sugar and uronic acid substitutions and can be chemically-modified by acetylation. In this presentation we will cover the recent advances in understanding the molecular structure of hemicelluloses and their role in the organization of plant cell walls, with a focus on cereal cell walls. This requires the combination of advanced biochemical methods based on mass spectrometry, with solid-state biophysical approaches, including small angle scattering techniques. This fundamental
        information on the structure and assembly of hemicelluloses can be used for the development of new sustainable processes for their extraction and their subsequent use in functional food
        ingredients with tailored properties and structures. This can be directly applied to the valorization of by-products from the agricultural sector (e.g. cereal bran and fruit pulps), which
        constitute a rich source of dietary fibres with bioactive properties for their engineering in new food products.

      • 11:00
      • 11:20
        Maria Öhman – Vinnova 20m
      • 11:40
        Application and Science Pitch 35m
    • 12:15 13:00
      Lunch 45m
    • 13:00 16:00
      Session 5 - Fully exploiting MAX IV and ESS for the future of food research in Europe – European Food Laboratory - Session chairs: Emma Nordell (LU Innovation) & Niklas Loren (RISE)

      Discussion Focus: Fully exploiting MAX IV and ESS for the future of food research in Europe – European Food Laboratory

      • 13:00
        RISE - Enlight industrial food research questions with xray and neutron techniques 30m
        Speaker: Niklas Lorén (RISE / Chalmers)
      • 13:30
        NIZO, the Netherlands - Title: Neutron scattering and food science: results and ideas 30m
        Speaker: Hans Tromp (NIZO, The Netherlands)
      • 14:00
        Arla Foods, Denmark - Scale of the Problem 30m

        Most foods are inherently complex due to their biological origin. They are chemically and physically organised at a vast range of length scales. Much of our current understanding of food
        characteristics stem from simplified systems and food models as well as from highly controlled laboratory experiments. Such knowledge is invaluable when developing new food products as well as for improving and troubleshooting excisting production processes. However, extrapolating the knowledge from such simplified systems into truly understanding and describing real world applications leaves a lot of room for improvement. Examplified by milk fat crystallisation and casein micelle structural dynamics and their influence on dairy foods' rheological functionality challenges are lined up showcasing the scales of time, size and complexity that needs to be adressed to truly understand and control food production.

        Speaker: Peter L. Wejse (Arla, Denmark)
      • 14:30
        Coffee Break 15m
      • 14:45
        Panel discussion 1h 15m

        Moderator: Pia Kinhult, ESS

        Panel: Elisabet Nielsen (Vinnova), Johanna van Schaik Dernfalk (Formas), Carina Knorpp (Näringsdepartementet), Rickard Öste (Aventure/Oatly), Tommy Nylander (LU-LINXS)

    • 09:00 10:50
      Session 6 - Session chair: Anna Ström (Chalmers)
      • 09:00
        Keynote talk - Structuring foods by proteins and their supramolecular aggregates: the critical role of complementary techniques to observe structure dynamics in relevant environments. 40m

        There is an increased need to change the way we manufacture foods to achieve carbon-neutral value chains. This may include the use of new ingredients from less known sources, fine tune processing conditions and formulations, and closely control the formation of structure to avoid overprocessing or to optimize the nutritional functionality of the food. A few systems have been studied in great detail at various length scales, and have demonstrated how it is possible to provide useful information by designing experimental environments as close as possible to relevant processes.
        This presentation will review some examples of successful application of non disruptive, in situ studies using X-ray and neutrons that may serve as inspiration for future work on novel food systems. We will point out to some of the challenges we face when studying the formation of structures in complex environments; furthermore, the importance of a multidisciplinary effort in studying these food systems in their complexity can not be stressed enough, as a full characterization of the samples and their structuring dynamics using complementary traditional techniques is often needed.

        Speaker: Prof. Milena Corredig (Aarhus University, Denmark)
      • 09:40
        Keynote talk - The hidden structures of the processed plant foods 30m

        Protein-rich cereals and legumes such as, quinoa, wheat and lupin, during latest years have got a lot of attention in food sector because of their potential to substitute imported soy. Quinoa seeds originating from the Andean region are known for its superior nutritional characteristics that include attractive amino acid composition, vitamins and minerals, highly suitable for development of innovative foods. While lupin, in a form of isolates and concentrates (Muranyi et al. 2016), and wheat gluten protein gliadin, due to its ability to deliver different functionalities and structures (Kuktaite et al. 2016; Muneer et al. 2016), can be suitable ingredients in developing new food products. The study is focusing on investigating micro-/and nano-structures and properties of proteins (but also starch and fibers) in quinoa flour, lupin protein isolates and gliadins transformed into different foods/fibers using various processing methods (Kuktaite et al. 2021; Ceresino et al. 2020; 2021; unpublished results). The structures resolved using scattering techniques such as, SAXS, WAXS in combination with X-ray tomography, SEM, FTIR and HPLC, elucidated new interactions between the proteins (and other seed components) and food grade additives, not previously observed in the processed foods. From the main results, the synergistic interactions of gliadin and linoleic acid led to the formation of lamellar structures in the foams observed by SAXS (Ceresino et al. 2020). While in the lupin foams, a hexagonal arrangement 1: √3 was observed by SAXS in the presence of lecithin in the blend (Ceresino et al. 2021).
        With this study we conclude, that the plant protein and other components structures in the studied cereal and legume food/fiber products can be more influenced when the additives and more refined proteins (e.g. isolates) are used compared with the whole flour.

        Speaker: Dr. Ramune Kuktaite (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden)
      • 10:10
        Coffee Break 20m
      • 10:30
        Contr. talk - What neutrons tell us about meat analogues 20m

        For a rational redesign of the production of meat analogues one should understand the formation kinetics of a good texture. Neutron scattering yields all kind of information on the bulk of the meat analogues. We used several neutron techniques to characterise these materials. We performed most measurements on calcium caseinate based meat replacements [1]. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering has showed the importance of the molecular mobility of the proteins [2]. Small-angle neutron scattering has showed at which length scale the orientation of the fibres goes from isotropic to aligned. With neutron refraction the air bubbles in meat analogues have been quantified
        [3]. This knowledge will help to further improve the methods for meat analogues production. The holy grail in this research is now to apply these methods in situ while processing the materials.
        1. B.Tian, V. Garcia Sakai, C.P. Pappas, A.J. van der Goot, W.G. Bouwman Chemical Engineering Science 207 1270-1277 (2019)
        2. B.Tian, Z. Wang, L. de Campo, E.P. Gilbert, R.M. Dalgliesh, E. Velichko, A.J. van der Goot, W.G. Bouwman
        Food Hydrocolloids 106 105912 (2020)
        3. B.Tian, Z. Wang, A.J. van der Goot, W.G. Bouwman
        Food Hydrocolloids 83 287-295 (2018)

        Speaker: Dr. Wim Bouwman (Delft University of Technology,)
    • 10:50 12:00
      Closing remarks and future outlook – Niklas Lorén (RISE) & Anna Ström (Chalmers) 1h 10m
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